It is common for cat owners to be scratched by cats, and sometimes they may be bitten. Because most people lack a correct understanding of rabies, they often feel nervous after being scratched by a cat. Of course, they also have a big intention to do something wrong. So here comes the question…:
Be scratched by cat, need to hit rabies vaccine?
The main reason for the confusion is that most mammals, such as cats and dogs, can be infected with rabies virus. Generally speaking, rabies is transmitted mainly by dogs, which is caused by the bite of sick dogs. According to the survey, about 3% of rabies is transmitted by cat bites, and rabies cases caused by cat scratch are extremely common.
What should I do if I’m caught by a cat? “Ten day observation” is one of the rabies prevention and control methods recommended by the World Health Organization. If you are bitten by a sick or healthy cat or dog, you should get rabies vaccine as soon as possible. At the same time, observe the biting cats and dogs. If there is no death due to rabies in 10 days, the bitten person can terminate the rabies vaccine injection. At the same time, it can be judged that the victim was not infected with rabies at all.
In order to avoid this situation, the following measures can be taken to avoid this situation:
Domestic cats are regularly vaccinated against rabies
Domestic cats are kept in captivity to prevent cats from going out and eating outside
Cut off the cat’s sharp nails
Keep away from the cat in the process of protecting food, baby, playing and defending
When cutting a cat’s fingernails, pay attention to a little before the capillaries.
Is it a domestic cat? If so, you should wash it with soap and running water in time, and then put iodine on it. Alcohol alone is not enough
But it won’t be a big problem
Because it’s not very deep. So if it’s a stray cat, you can disinfect it, and you don’t have to worry about it
I have a lot of cats in my family. I was caught by this one today and bitten by the other tomorrow. I do a good job in cleaning and disinfection, and then the cat has been injected, so there is no need to worry about anything
My father was bitten very deeply by the cat at home and had a lot of bleeding. Therefore, I consulted the doctors in the hospital. They told me that if you wash with alkaline soap and flowing water for more time and apply medicine, you don’t need to worry at all. If the wound is shallow, it’s even more so. After all, the virus is not infectious
Read a lot of posts. I feel that this rabies has been demonized by Chinese people. First of all, the incubation period of rabies is not ten years, twenty years or even thirty years. It has been reported that 99% of rabies cases occur and die within one year. Most of them die within 10 days to a month. The longest record is six years. Yes? Do you feel cheated by doctors or family members for so many years?? you ‘re right. I felt the same way in the beginning. But that’s what happened. CCTV also said that cat scratch is extremely rare. In fact, there is a ten day identification method. See if the cat or dog that bit you within 10 days of being bitten has hung up. If you don’t hang up, you don’t have a virus. You’ll be fine. Your pet is less likely to have rabies. So. You’ll still believe the doctor. Then go and fight. It’s not expensive anyway. Catch once, hit once. It’s a beehive. Good luck
also. I have never heard of rabies caught by a cat.
In fact, if the family condition is OK, it can save a lot of unnecessary worries.
I remember when I was a child, 100 yuan or 200 yuan was finished with one injection. Now the price of five injections and serum is even more amazing. It’s a good money to make. You can’t make money. You can’t take life with them.
Whether a dog or a cat bites a person or not first determines whether the dog or cat bites with rabies virus, and then the degree and location of the bite. Generally, regular vaccination of the normal dog, cat no problem, if it is mad dog, sick cat must pay attention to. If the dog or cat biting you is healthy, and your skin is not broken (the main host of rabies virus infection, rabies is generally transmitted through the saliva of animals, and cats and dogs will add their claws with their tongue, there is a certain chance that the rabies virus will be carried to the claws, so it may also be infected with rabies after scratch) or be bitten. There are many factors that influence the incidence of rabies virus after being bitten by rabies and cats: 1. It depends on the number of rabies virus entering the human body. If the rabies virus is in the early stage of the disease when biting by a mad dog or cat, the rabies virus in their saliva is less than that in the later stage of the disease. 2. Whether the injury is serious also affects whether the bitten person is ill. A large area of deep bite is more likely to occur than a small superficial wound. 3. Multiple site bite is more likely to occur than single part bite, and the incubation period is shorter. 4. Correct and timely treatment of the wound after being bitten is the first line of defense against rabies. If the wound is treated correctly in time and treated after anti rabies exposure, the risk of rabies can be greatly reduced. 5. The incidence of infection through mucous membrane is more difficult than that of biting skin, and more cases are depressive rabies. 6. Crazy animal bites the head, face and neck, etc., which are close to the central nervous system or the peripheral nerve rich parts. The incidence rate and mortality of those who bite the limbs are higher. 7. People with low resistance are more likely to suffer from the disease than those with strong resistance. Rabies virus into the human body after the onset of this period of time, known as the incubation period of rabies. This period can be days, months or years, up to 20 years. In general, 85% of the cases are within 3 months, 90% are within 6 months, 96% are within 1 year, and only 4% of the total cases are found to have more than one year. According to rabies experts from the World Health Organization in 1994, the longest incubation period with accurate scientific data is 19 years and 6 months. That is to say, those who are bitten by mad dogs, cats or suspicious mad dogs or cats without preventive treatment, even after several years or ten years For several years, there is still the possibility of rabies.
Generally after being bitten, as long as timely vaccination, there is nothing wrong, there is no need to worry about rabies! After being bitten by a dog or cat, the wound should be treated strictly within two hours. Try to squeeze the skin with a cupping. Then wash the wound with 20% soapy water or 0.1% Bromogeramine for half an hour, then rinse the wound with plenty of water, and then cauterize the wound repeatedly with Shaojiu or 5% iodine or 75% alcohol. If the wound is close to the head, the anti rabies immune serum should be injected into or around the wound to vaccinate rabies vaccine as soon as possible. If the injury is serious, anti rabies immune serum should be added at the same time, and tetanus antitoxin or toxoid should be given as needed. In the injection of human rabies vaccine (between, after) the precautions: (1) in the whole course of rabies vaccine injection about 15 days after going to the hospital, fasting blood sample 2ml to detect whether antibody, if the test results in positive antibody, that the body has produced anti rabies antibody. It also shows that the vaccine injected has immune effect on this injury (if it contains rabies virus).
(2) During the injection of rabies vaccine for human use, it is forbidden to use corticosteroids and try not to vaccinate other vaccines. (3) wine, strong tea and spicy food, shrimp and crab are edible. (as for the instructions, it is not recommended to drink alcohol, drink strong tea, eat stimulating food and take strenuous exercise during the vaccination period in order to avoid causing vaccine injection reaction. Of course, it is also considered that alcohol may accelerate the nerve movement speed of rabies virus and shorten the incubation period. Therefore, it is advisable not to drink alcohol or drink alcohol during rabies vaccine injection.)
(4) Those who are bitten and have no dysfunction can take part in proper labor and exercise, but should not do strenuous activities, so as to avoid excessive fatigue, catch a cold, and reduce reaction. (5) it is necessary to strengthen nutrition and improve disease resistance. Vitamin and anti infective drugs can be given at the same time to avoid immune interference. It is groundless to worry about fish and chickens.
If rabies vaccine is not injected immediately after being bitten by dogs and cats, if the time of being bitten is within 10 days, regular rabies vaccination should be carried out. If the bitten part is the head, face, neck or department bitten by rabies, even if it has been quite a long time, they should be actively vaccinated against rabies and injected with anti rabies immune serum or immunoglobulin. The dose of rabies vaccine for children was the same as that of adults. If the rabies vaccine is injected within a long time after being bitten, it will not be able to prevent the outbreak of rabies. Therefore, rabies vaccine is not vaccinated for more than a few months after being bitten by a dog. Rabies vaccine is in dog, cat bite within 24 hours, will have the effect. If the time has passed, then even if you play now has no effect. People should treat things scientifically and objectively. Although there is no vaccine, there is a great possibility that people will not be infected with rabies virus. Not everyone bitten by dogs and cats will be infected with rabies. We now call for vaccination after being bitten by a dog because rabies is an incurable disease, and also to avoid trouble in the future. Vaccination is a preventive measure. Does normal person need to hit rabies vaccine? People who are not bitten by dogs and cats generally do not need to be vaccinated against rabies. Because rabies vaccine has an effective period, the validity period of rabies vaccine is calculated from the time when the human body receives vaccination to produce antibody (specific immunoglobulin). Because antibodies are proteins, they also metabolize and hydrolyze, with a cycle of about 180 days. Therefore, the effective period of immune protection of rabies vaccine for human use is 6 months from the time of antibody production (about the fifth injection). In general, neutralizing antibodies appear in the blood three weeks after the first injection, but it takes about 30 days (basically the time of the fifth injection) to reach the effective level, and the antibody titer reaches the peak in 40-60 days (also counting from the first injection). After that, it began to decrease slowly, and the antibody level could not reach the effective level after 180 days. Therefore, the effective period of immune protection was about 6 months. To put it simply: if you are injured within half a year after the first injection, you can stop injecting or go to the epidemic prevention station to add (strengthen) a needle. If the interval between the first bite time and the second bite is more than 3 years, you need to re inject the whole vaccine. Because the efficacy of the first injection may be lost, it is better to go to the epidemic prevention station for inspection. In other words, early injection can play a preventive role, but the validity period is half a year. Since I don’t know when I will be bitten, I just need to inject it in time after being bitten. Don’t worry, don’t worry, it will be OK! And good luck!
Rabies virus is mainly in saliva, scratch is generally OK, but do not let the cat or dog lick.
If you are worried about the risk, you can use the “ten day observation method”. If there is no rabies in the kitten within ten days, it means that there is no rabies virus and you will not be infected with rabies. But do not let other small animals saliva, blood contact.
You have to know what a vaccine is! A vaccine is a weak virus – an antibody produced by the immune system after being injected into the body to resist the virus! It’s antibodies against viruses, not vaccines against viruses! If everything goes well, it takes 20-30 days for the vaccine to produce antibodies completely! If you are injured by a rabid animal! It’s already in the West
Vaccination for various reasons may not produce antibodies called immune failure! Whether there is antibody to know! It doesn’t mean that you can produce it after vaccination!
If it is suspected that the animal with rabies virus injury! It’s not a vaccine! If this time the injection of vaccine will induce the virus that does not attack! The injection is serum (the serum is exogenous antibody!) Direct resistance to viruses! In healthy condition, it takes 20-30 days for the vaccine to produce antibody completely (generally not smooth, so it needs several injections in succession). Even if it does not induce the antibody, you may be on the way to the West
Finally, you can read the following article carefully before you decide what to do
Who should get rabies vaccine? Rabies phobia and vaccine abuse was published in the 24th edition of southern weekend on September 8, written by Yan Jiaxin, a researcher at the rabies detection center of Wuhan Institute of biological products. I read this popular science article very seriously. Assuming that the conclusions are based on current internationally recognized medical research, we can identify some of the institutional fallacies (are there any economic incentives for stakeholders to vigorously promote vaccines?) Some basic conclusions are obtained. As the original text is relatively professional, I summarize it as follows according to my own understanding (in case of improper understanding, I will pay for the document)
1¡¢ The incubation period of rabies is usually 1-3 months. The incubation period of a few serious head and face bites may be as short as 7 days, and less than 1% of the total number may be more than one year.
2¡¢ Healthy dogs do not transmit rabies. The simple and practical identification method is “ten day observation method”. Who believes that if the dog (or cat) remains healthy for 10 days after injury, the injured person will not be infected.
3¡¢ If it is in an epidemic area where rabies is prevalent, if the vaccinated person has not been vaccinated before, the vaccine should be injected immediately at the same time of starting the “ten day observation method” (do not wait for 10 days foolishly; if the observed animal really hangs up within 10 days, it will be green), and then according to the observation results, determine whether the following several injections of vaccine are needed.
4¡¢ There is no strict scientific proof that mice and rabbits can infect rabies. Birds, reptiles, fish and insects infect rabies.
Five, correct wound irrigation can reduce the incidence rate of more than 50%.
6¡¢ Assuming that rabies virus has entered the central nervous system, the vaccine may still be effective. Rabies virus into the central nervous system, in 3-5 days, either be cleared, or disease. In any case, it is impossible for rabies virus to be latent in the central nervous system (including brain and spinal cord) for a long time.
7¡¢ Once a person’s rabies attacks, he must die within ten days. Some people suspect that they have rabies symptoms for a long time. They must not be rabies.
8¡¢ As long as the whole course of vaccination before the onset of the disease, effective antibodies (Note: immune failure does not count), there is no possibility of rabies virus “latent” in the body, there will not be a relapse.
9¡¢ If the whole immunization lasted for 3-5 times, the protective effect could last for decades. If you are bitten again, two more needles are enough. This point of view is much lower than that of the standard of £¢.
10¡¢ Compared with who, our current national standards are obviously abused. This is not only a serious waste of resources, but also a national “phobia certificate” guided by the official voice.
These summaries are too professional. Let me say something more white: if you are bitten and scratched by a cat or a dog, 1. Wash the dog immediately and immunize the whole process (3-5 injections for the first time, and then be bitten carelessly, and strengthen 2 injections at most); 2. Observe the little guy who caused the accident for 10 days. If it is OK, you will have nothing to do, and the needle behind will not be used; 3. If you can’t follow up the situation of the little guy, after completing step 1 At most one year, it will be all right (there will be no terrorist rumors lurking for decades); 4. If the little guy really dies within 10 days, you can finish step 1 as soon as possible; you should go to the doctor immediately, and don’t make him attack (it will be no more).
What’s more, what I really want to express is that most cats and dogs are healthy. After being bitten, they should face it with a scientific attitude and simply deal with it scientifically. We can’t ignore it, but we don’t need to exaggerate and panic. Phobia, dog phobia, neighborhood disputes, social conflicts, and the long-term misdirection of * * are to blame. It is the interests that mislead the public, and ignorance leads to the unique spectacle that Chinese people divide their attitudes towards cats and dogs into two opposing camps: love and hate. The lives of cats and dogs have become the most pitiful victims of some interest groups under the banner of public health and safety.
Appendix: who should be vaccinated against rabies? “Rabies phobia” and vaccine abuse
At present, the most feared infectious disease in China, in addition to AIDS, is rabies. Rabies phobia, referred to as “phobia”, has now become a very popular psychological disease which can almost keep pace with “acrophobia”.
Recently, the abuse of rabies vaccine in China has aroused widespread concern. The consumption of rabies vaccine in China reaches 15 million copies per year, more than 80% of the global total. If there is no vaccine at all, 30000 people will die of rabies every year in China. This means that 99.8% of vaccinators could not have been vaccinated in theory, and at least one third of them may be abused. So, what could be abuse? How to avoid abuse?
The most common manifestation of phobia is the abuse of rabies vaccine. When it is obvious that the vaccine should not be vaccinated, it is still worried even after repeated vaccination. The prevalence of rabies is obviously one of the important reasons for the abuse of rabies vaccine in China.
Rabies is the most infectious disease with the highest mortality rate and low incidence rate. It is easy to overreact. At present, there are a lot of unscientific comments about rabies on the Internet or in real life. All kinds of strange talks are quite common among “experts” and the public, which makes some people who have contact with dogs and cats (even those who have no contact with them at all) for a long time in fear, and even develop into obsessive-compulsive disorder or “hysteria”. Some people have been vaccinated many times, but they still travel thousands of miles to Wuhan every month for antibody testing, worried that “once the antibody is reduced, rabies will attack.”. Some people think that the virus has infiltrated into the brain, they will die without doubt, lose their jobs, search the Internet all day long, and are at a loss in all kinds of conflicting information. Some people suspect that the vaccine is fake, that there is a live virus in the vaccine, that the rabies virus can be transmitted through the air, and that nurses and experts Struggling with endless troubles all day long.
When it comes to rabies, we should first clarify the most basic fact: the risk of rabies is not comparable with AIDS (there is no effective vaccine for the latter, and the underlying immune mechanism is still unknown). The prevention and control of rabies is a problem that has been basically solved in medicine. Rabies has been effectively controlled in all developed countries and some developing countries in the world. The annual death toll of rabies has been kept at or close to zero for many years. Rabies is 100% preventable: no matter how serious the exposure is, as long as it is treated according to the scheme approved by the World Health Organization (who), the incidence of rabies can be 100% avoided.
In this paper, the author will list some representative cases to illustrate how to avoid the abuse of rabies vaccine. The author will provide several simple, practical criteria to help patients with phobia out of the shadow as soon as possible.
How long is the incubation period
Can the incubation period of rabies be as long as 40 years? Fifty years? Even for life? Will China set another Guinness record? In some professional magazines and even textbooks in China, the incubation period of mania is often recorded for decades.
Are these “cases” in China really rabies? Because there is no laboratory diagnosis basis, or it is impossible to prove that no new infection has occurred in the near future (such as infection through some special or rare routes), these “cases” have not been recognized by the international academic community, and even uploaded as jokes in the international community, as an example of the low level of relevant science in China.
Domestic and foreign data show that the incubation period of rabies is usually 1-3 months. The incubation period of a few severe head and face bites may be as short as 7 days, and the incubation period of very few cases (less than 1% of the total number) may be longer than one year
At present, the longest incubation period of rabies recognized by the international mainstream scientific community is 6 years. American scholars reported the case in a professional journal in 1991. The deceased was a Filipino immigrant who never left the United States after immigrating to the United States. Since the chance of rabies infection in the United States is very rare, and the results of partial gene sequence analysis show that the rabies virus isolated from the brain of the deceased is the same as the virus strains prevalent in the countries of origin of the deceased, the report provides the most convincing evidence to date that the incubation period of rabies may be as long as six years.
Because the number of similar cases is too small and the chain of evidence is not very complete, there are still objections to the case report in relevant academic circles. For example, many French scholars believe that cases with an incubation period of more than one year are extremely rare, and the possibility of recurrence after one year is negligible. They all laugh at the idea of a longer incubation period.
There are too many people who have been bitten by dogs in China in the past few decades. If the incubation period of rabies is really so long and so many people should be vaccinated, the annual rabies vaccination amount in China will increase by a considerable amount. Many phobic patients are stupefied by the legend that rabies has a long incubation period.
Promoting the “ten day observation method”
It should be firmly believed that healthy dogs do not transmit rabies! According to the results of field investigation in China, the related papers jointly written by experts from China and the United States have been published in the third issue of the Journal of zoonoses from vector sources in 2008. But the appearance health is not equal to the real health, it must be tested by experiment or identified by “ten day observation method”. If a person is bitten by a dog, if the dog can be killed immediately and the brain is taken for testing, it can be determined whether the bitten person needs to be vaccinated according to the test results (the presence or absence of the virus). If the animals are executed on the spot unconditionally for testing, the “ten day observation method” recognized by who can be applied: “if the dog (or cat) remains healthy during the 10 day observation period The treatment can be terminated. “
In recent ten years, our laboratory has not found any evidence to deny the “ten day observation method” at home and abroad. This method is a simple and practical method to determine whether dogs (or cats) are infectious or not. It is also suitable for China.
It should be noted that in the rabies epidemic area, those who have not been vaccinated before should start the “ten day observation method” at the same time, and then determine whether the latter two or three vaccines can be saved according to the observation results.
At present, most of the dogs or cats in the city are pets, which usually have little contact with the outside world, so it is convenient to implement the “ten day observation method”. If the “ten day observation method” is popularized in China, not only the dosage of vaccine can be greatly reduced (possibly by half of the total dosage), but also the vast majority of patients with phobia can be liberated more quickly.
How to be bitten by mouse and rabbit
According to the WHO report, “inspection of thousands of wild and residential rodents in rabies endemic areas of North America and Europe shows that there are few rodents infected with rabies, indicating that these animals are not the storage hosts of the disease.” “Exposure to rodents such as rabbits and rabbits rarely requires specialized post exposure prophylaxis against rabies.”
In Chinese literature reports, there are occasional reports of rabies cases transmitted from mice to humans. However, the confirmation of the injured animals depends on the oral recall of patients or their families, so the scientific value is limited and the total number is very small.
According to the author’s years of data collection and research, it is believed that the above views of who are basically applicable to China. Especially in the non key epidemic areas, bitten by rats and rabbits, the possibility of rabies is very small, and it is usually not necessary to vaccinate rabies vaccine.
People are more likely to be bitten by rats – 3% to 10% of all animal injuries. If there is no vaccination in such cases, the annual vaccine consumption may be saved by up to 1 / 10.
As for the disposal of rat bites, there is no relevant working standard in China. It is suggested that the probability of rabies caused by rodent bite should be publicized objectively and the patients should weigh whether they need to be vaccinated against rabies.
In addition, birds (such as chickens, ducks, geese), reptiles (such as lizards, turtles and snakes), fish and insects are never infected with rabies, and therefore cannot be transmitted.
Treat “indirect communication” correctly
The source and transmission route of rabies is relatively single, mainly through dog or cat scratch or bite. Who clearly stipulates that post exposure prevention is divided into three levels. For class I exposure, i.e. contact or feeding of animals, or licking of intact skin, no precautions are required. Many other so-called “indirect transmission” methods that many phobic patients worry about actually occur with very small probability, which can usually be ignored. If the psychological burden of some people is so heavy that their daily work and study are seriously affected, they can also be vaccinated with three doses of vaccine. After vaccination, they can basically rest assured – neutralizing antibodies may last for years or even decades, during which time they will have sufficient resistance to the so-called “indirect transmission”.
We should fully understand the important role of wound cleaning. Proper wound irrigation can reduce the incidence rate by more than 50%. For many specious “indirect transmission” or mild exposure in non endemic areas, wound cleaning is actually enough to completely eliminate the possibility of a very small infection without insisting on vaccination.
One of the most typical examples of the importance of wound management is that the earliest recorded rabies in Europe was born in Lyon, France, in 900 A.D.: a bear became mad, bit 20 people at a time, and then fled to the other side of a river. Among the bitten, 14 people swam across the river to hunt for bears. It is possible that the virus in the wound was washed away by the river water. All the 14 people were not infected with rabies virus. The 6 people who did not chase and kill the bear (and thus did not clean the wound) later died of rabies (it seems that those who do good deeds for justice get good results).
Viruses in the central nervous system
Many “phobia” patients like to ask this question: rabies virus into the nerve cells, the vaccine induced antibodies do not work? Can antibodies remove viruses from the central nervous system (CNS)?
A large number of original and newly discovered evidences show that rabies virus antibody can not only neutralize the virus in peripheral nerve cells, but also completely eliminate the virus in CNS under certain conditions; after rabies virus enters CNS, it will either be eliminated or become ill within 3-5 days. In any case, it is impossible for rabies virus to be latent in CNS (including brain and spinal cord) for a long time.
Once a person’s rabies attacks, he will die within ten days. Therefore, if any symptom is suspected to be related to rabies, the patient must die of rabies after ten days (at least he has been admitted to the intensive care unit for rescue). If this is not the case, the symptoms must not be related to rabies (should be transferred to other specialties for treatment as soon as possible). Some phobic patients believe that they have rabies, claiming that the typical rabies performance has lasted for months or even longer. I hope no one will make fun of yourself like this again.
There are a large number of examples to prove that it may be effective to treat rabies virus on