How to confirm the diagnosis of abdominal transmission in cats?

       Cat’s abdominal transmission will cause the cat no appetite, vomiting, and even jaundice and other symptoms, the cat will be extremely thin and weak. Even the eyes will appear some blood, accompanied by yellow.

       Feline abdominal transmission: the full name of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), is a typical cat fatal disease, often characterized by body cavity effusion, jaundice, neurological signs or uveitis.

       Wet abdominal transmission: in addition to the above symptoms, there is a large amount of effusion in the abdominal cavity or chest cavity. The type of effusion is exudate. Li Fanta’s positive test of effusion shows obvious characteristics of medullary gyrosis and lymph node enlargement. At the same time, the external appearance of wet abdominal transmission is: hen squatting, fever, mental state malaise, loss of appetite, spine bulge, abdominal effusion, resulting in body size discordance, big stomach, small head, yellow ears and nose, urine yellow, chest water will lead to faster respiratory rate.

       Dry abdominal transmission: there is no other abnormal performance, and even some cats have no difference with normal state. Parents need to observe carefully. Once the performance is loss of appetite and mental state is depressed, seek medical advice immediately. The symptoms include uveitis, corneal edema, deposits on the cornea, inflammation of iris and ciliary body, reddening of aqueous humor, fibrin clot in anterior chamber fluid, and flaming retinal hemorrhage at the initial stage of disease.

       The diagnosis of feline abdominal transmission in China mostly relies on routine examination and empirical inference of sick cat symptoms, so the hospital will write “suspected” in the diagnosis book! The gold standard of real diagnosis is immunohistochemical test, which only needs special laboratory and testing institution! So it’s impossible to answer your question with this report and the symptoms you describe!

       Feline abdominal transmission is still an infectious disease with very low cure rate. In early years, it was 100% of the diseases directly sentenced to death. In recent years, there are some new drugs for cat abdominal transmission abroad, but the effect needs to be verified, and the price is high! At present, only a small number of hospitals in China have introduced these new drugs, and the treatment effect is also mixed. You can learn about it according to your own situation!

       In terms of nursing, cats with abdominal transmission are usually weak, and it is difficult to care at home. If you want to save your life, you need to be hospitalized!

       FIP is one of the most fatal diseases in cats. Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is an immune-mediated disease caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV). The diagnosis and treatment of FIP is a great challenge for every veterinarian for four reasons: (1) the incidence is high; (2) diagnosis is difficult in many cases; (3) in a multi cat environment, it is almost impossible to prevent the occurrence of FIP; (4) death is almost irreversible in a short period of time. Infectious peritonitis is one of the 200 cases of cats sent to the veterinary teaching hospital in the United States.

       At present, there is no clinical symptomatic or specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The presence of FIP antibody does not indicate infectious peritonitis. Similarly, if there is no FIP antibody, FIP cannot be excluded. Many scholars believe that serological test results are limited in diagnosis. PCR can directly detect FCoV gene. Although they are very sensitive in detecting cat coronavirus infection, the test results need to be combined with the clinical symptoms of cats, and can not be used to diagnose FIP. The authoritative diagnosis of FIP should be determined by pathology or by detection of intracellular FCoV antibody by immunofluorescence staining / immunochemical staining. [1]

       Cat coronavirus (FCoV) is a member of the ancient coronavirus family. Cat coronavirus can be divided into two types, type I and type II, both of which can cause infectious peritonitis in cats. Cat coronavirus is transmitted between cats through the “fecal oral” route, but it does not infect other animals. The positive rate of coronavirus specific antibody can reach as much as 90% in the concentrated areas and 50% in the single cat raising places. However, it should be noted that only about 5% of those who are positive for the virus eventually develop infectious peritonitis. [2] [3] at the beginning, it was assumed that cat coronavirus can be divided into two categories: one is enterovirus, which does not cause infectious peritonitis; the other is that the mutation of enterovirus can cause infectious peritonitis. However, recent studies have shown that all cat coronaviruses can cause infectious peritonitis in cats. RT-PCR studies show that the previous hypothesis is not true, only the virulence of the same virus is different. [4]

       The precise process of FIP lesions is unclear, but there are two main hypotheses. [5] The first hypothesis is: endogenous variation hypothesis, virus replication in macrophages. [6-9] in this case, cats are infected with non virulent cat coronaviruses, which replicate in intestinal cells. In some cases, some gene segments of cat coronavirus mutate and form different phenotypes, which makes it capable of replication in cells. Although it is called endogenous theory, there is no consistent data to prove the existence of consistent variation. But the rationale behind this theory is that even under experimental conditions, highly virulent cat coronavirus can continuously induce FIP. [10] The second hypothesis is that any cat coronavirus can induce FIP. Whether FIP occurs or not depends on the immune response mechanism of cats. [9-14] the key pathological core process of both hypotheses is virus replication in macrophages. If the macrophages infected with viral substances with replication ability are not removed early, the body will develop a fatal type III allergy, which is infectious peritonitis.

       The symptoms of infected cats are mainly caused by (1) granulomatous lesions in the target organs, including central nervous system, eyes and parenchymal organs. The incidence of lesions in these organs is lower, and it usually requires special means to be able to diagnose clearly. (2) Vasculitis leads to effusion in the body cavity, such as ascites, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, scrotal effusion, etc. Intestinal nodular type is relatively rare. Diarrhea and vomiting in young cats are usually associated with intestinal granulomatous lesions. [15] In addition, some uncommon symptoms have been reported, such as skin frailty syndrome. Other skin lesions include nodular skin lesions, mound like skin lesions, foot dermatitis, etc. [17,18] one cat showed abnormal erection, and the antibody of this cat coronavirus was positive by immunohistochemistry.

       Since FIP is not only common but also lethal, there is no effective long-term treatment plan, so a credible and rapid diagnosis scheme is very important. However, accurate diagnosis of FIP is very challenging. It is particularly difficult to diagnose FIP without exudative lesions without non-invasive diagnostic methods. When there is effusion, the first need to detect effusion, screening, this method is more reference than the detection of blood indicators. In the absence of exudative cases, many conditions need to be understood, including medical history, the origin of the cat, clinical symptoms, laboratory data changes, antibody titer should be taken into account to determine whether invasive further diagnosis is needed. FIP diagnosis process mainly includes:

       1. Routine examination (temperature, heart rate, respiration, abdominal palpation and chest percussion)

       2. Hematological examination (including routine blood test and biochemical examination)

       3. Ophthalmic examination (including anterior chamber and retina examination)

       4. Imaging examination (chest and abdomen X-ray film, abdominal and chest B-ultrasound examination)

       5. Effusion test: pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid test and cerebrospinal fluid test (cytological examination, protein content determination, cell count determination, lifanta test)

       6. Measure antibody titer

       7. RT PCR detection

       8. Detection of immune complex

       9. Open exploration and autopsy – the final method.

       10. Immunofluorescence staining in macrophages (including fluorescence staining and immunohistochemical detection)

       It’s better to go to a pet hospital with complete medical equipment and advanced equipment. My dog went to pet Yisheng Hefei Tianhong general hospital to see it. I had seen two pet hospitals before, but I wasted a lot of money. Finally, I pushed Tianhong general hospital. There are many cats and dogs with complicated diseases. The technology is very good, and the doctors are very patient! My Bobbie is better now

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