Symptoms of retinal detachment in cats

       As the saying goes, the eye is the window of the mind. This is especially true for cats, whose eyes are bright and can see things in the dark. But, like humans, if cat’s eyes are not properly cared for, they are likely to get sick. What kind of diseases will appear in cat’s eyes? Meow introduces the causes, characteristics and symptoms of several kinds of cat eye diseases, so that we can find and treat them in time.

       Diseases of the eyelids and cornea

       The eyelids regulate the amount of light entering the eye and provide tears to the outermost cornea of the eye. The cornea is the window to store the external scenery and objects into the eye.

       The state of the eyelid to the medial inversion is called entropion, and the lateral inversion is called eversion. The third eyelid, also known as the blinking membrane, is usually hidden in the face of the eye. If it protrudes to the cornea, it is called the third eyelid protrusion.

       Inflammation of the cornea (keratitis), including local injury (corneal ulcer) caused by superficial contact with deep cornea, injury to anterior chamber (corneal perforation) caused by fighting and other trauma, and disease of corneal discoloration and peeling off (corneal putrefaction).

       Entropion of eyelid

       Third eyelid protrusion

       The third eye face has the function of protecting the eyeball and providing tears for cornea, but it will protrude from the inside of the eye face to cover part of the eyeball. The incidence rate of cats was higher than that of dogs, especially in young Burma cats. In addition, feline leukemia virus infection, digestive system parasitic diseases and aging can also induce the syndrome.

       Keratitis, corneal ulcer

       Corneal perforation

       Corneal detachment

       Retinal atrophy, chorioretinitis

       The fundus of cat is divided into reflex area, non reflex area and optic nerve area. The reflection zone is a unique structure of animals and has a strong light reflection layer. Seeing cat’s eye glow at night is caused by the reflective effect of the reflector. The nonreflective area is the fundus area without reflecting layer. It is dark brown because there are melanin particles in the retinal pigment epithelium of the outermost layer of retina. Retinal atrophy, chorioretinitis (retinal hemorrhage) and retinal detachment are common ocular fundus diseases in cats.

       Atrophy of retina

       Taurine deficiency retinal atrophy, first of all, is an obstacle in the area of the reflex called the central field of vision. The severity of the disease was aggravated by retinopathy of the optic nerve. HYPERREFLEXIVITY and retinal blood vessels disappeared in the lesion site.

       Chorioretinitis

       Parasitic diseases are known to be caused by maggots in the posterior eyeball, which are caused by the larvae of skin flies entering the back of the eyeball.

       The systemic fungal diseases causing this disease are caused by Candida, Mycoplasma nodosum, ascomycetes, Cryptococcus and coccidiospora, which occur in tropical and subtropical regions.

       Green cataract (glaucoma)

       There is aqueous humor circulating in the eyeball to maintain the balance of its production and discharge, and maintain the normal and stable intraocular pressure (IOP). Green cataract, also known as glaucoma, refers to the state of elevated intraocular pressure caused by some factors hindering aqueous humor discharge. If the intraocular pressure continues to rise, the retina and optic nerve will be compressed, resulting in visual impairment, or eye dilation. Green cataract is an acute disease and must be contacted with ophthalmologist as soon as possible.

       Aqueous humor is produced by the ciliary process in the ciliary body, then enters the posterior chamber, enters the anterior chamber through the pupil, and then discharges through the anterior chamber angle. It is known that there are two types of green cataract: abnormal perivenous plexus (open anterior chamber angle green cataract) hindering aqueous humor discharge, or blocking of anterior chamber angle in outflow pathway (occlusion of anterior chamber angle green cataract) hinders aqueous humor drainage.

       Other eye diseases

       cataract

       Incidence rate of cataract is low in cats. The etiology can be divided into two types: congenital and acquired. The main types of acquired cataract include aging, diabetes, trauma, endocrine and toxic types.

       Mydriasis

       When the sympathetic nerve conduction pathway from the lower thalamus to the brain stem and cervical spinal cord occurs, it may lead to pupil contraction, ptosis, sunken eyeball and protrusion of the third eyelid. It does not cause visual abnormalities.

       conjunctivitis

       Conjunctiva (eyelid membrane, bulbar conjunctiva) for a variety of reasons produce inflammation, induced by pain, congestion, tears, eyelid and other symptoms. Conjunctivitis in cats is usually caused by viral respiratory diseases. Therefore, the predisposing diseases should be treated first, but the symptomatic treatment combined with inhibition of the disease is also very important.

       Blepharitis

       The disease is a bacterial disease of the eye face and the edge of the eye face, showing redness, swelling and pain of the eye and face, blepharospasm and shyness. The eyelashes fell off because of itching. The etiology includes heredity, specific reaction, bacterial and fungal infection, parasitic infection such as trichomonas and scabies, and trauma. Except for special cases, the treatment effect is very good.

       The bright eyes of cats are the treasures of cats. Many people become a group of other cat lovers because of their fascination with cat eyes. The special structure of cat’s eye enables it to see things in the dark, and a cat can also be said to be an animal moving by vision. But the cat’s eyes are very delicate organs, it is also very fragile, will become dim due to external infection, so in peacetime, if there are any mild symptoms, we should let the cat see a doctor as soon as possible, so as not to cause irreparable damage.

       The bright eyes of cats are the treasures of cats. Many people become a group of other cat lovers because of their fascination with cat eyes. The special structure of cat’s eye enables it to see things in the dark, and a cat can also be said to be an animal moving by vision. But the cat’s eyes are very delicate organs, it is also very fragile, will become dim due to external infection, so in peacetime, if there are any mild symptoms, we should send the cat to a doctor as soon as possible, so as not to cause irreparable damage.

       If cat’s eyes do not pay attention to care, there will be a lot of eye diseases

       1¡¢ Retinal detachment

       Retinal detachment is caused by contusion, infectious diseases, genetic or dietary imbalance, resulting in retinal photosensitivity, cell degeneration, inflammation and rupture of the reticulum. Retinal detachment will gradually aggravate, and if not treated, it will lead to blindness. If the cat is found to have this eye disease, the owner must take the cat to a doctor as soon as possible to prevent the disease from deteriorating.

       2¡¢ Conjunctivitis

       3¡¢ Problems with the third eyelid

       4¡¢ Entropion and ectropion

       5¡¢ Epiphora

       Epiphoria is caused by excessive secretion of tears or obstruction of lacrimal ducts. The hair under the cat’s eyes will be dyed brown with this disease. It may be related to eye allergy, eye infection, conjunctivitis, keratitis and respiratory tract infection. This disease is common in Persian cats with short heredity. This eye disease may be related to eye allergies or respiratory tract infections, and often occurs in Persian and heterosexual cats with genetically short faces, so owners of these cats should check their eyes carefully when they first give their cats a medical examination.

       Epiphora of cat

       6¡¢ Glaucoma

       7¡¢ Keratitis

       8¡¢ Cataract

       Opacification of the pupil of cat’s eye is often due to the lens due to congenital or natural reasons and become turbid, opaque, known as cataract, generally appears in older or diabetic cats. The opacities on the lens surface of old cats are not necessarily cataracts, which may be caused by the change of refractive index of lens in old cats and will not affect vision. However, if you find that the cat’s eyes become white and cloudy, you should seek medical advice as soon as possible. The condition of cat cataract should be evaluated by veterinarian. If both eyes have cataracts, surgical treatment is the only recommendation. The common treatment for cataracts is surgery to remove the opaque parts and restore the cat’s vision. Only experienced doctors can do this kind of operation. If the operation can’t be done or the operation fails, the cat’s vision will gradually lose.

       Of course, it is not a white haze in the eyes, or a cataract. The spots on the lens surface of an old cat are not necessarily cataracts, but may be caused by changes in the refractive index of the lens when they are old, and do not affect vision.

       Cat’s eye disease can be transmitted, so it should be isolated. If it is viral, it is easy to infect. Pay attention to the disinfection of foreign articles. If it is Persia and other daily eye care, or relatively light inflammation, then use anti-inflammatory eye drops and eye wash can be combined.

       Cat’s eyes are always full of mysterious color, so people can’t help but be fascinated by it. Cat’s mysterious eyes and solitary personality once induced the legend of cats and witches in ancient Europe, which also brought great disaster to itself. Even though the saying of “lovely cat” is not so clever as to protect his own life. Even so, they also face the same diseases as other animals, such as eye diseases. When the cat’s eyes have abnormal symptoms, it is necessary to find a doctor at the first time. If not handled properly, it may cause irreparable damage.

       That sounds like a terrible name! In fact, it is a very serious disease. Suppose the eye is a camera, and the retina in the eye is like the negative film of the camera, which is the position of the object imaging. As the imaging center of the eyes, if the disease occurs, if it is not treated in time, it is likely that your cat can only live in the dark.

       Cause: contusion, infectious disease, heredity or unbalanced diet can cause retinal detachment.

       Symptoms: no pain, no itching, but the things you see are different from each other. They are twisted like twist.

       Medical manual: retinal photoreceptor cells degenerate or even peel off after trauma.

       Tips£º

       The thin membrane above the white eye is called conjunctivitis. Conjunctivitis is a common disease. Cats living in newly decorated houses and families with poor indoor sanitation often have this disease.

       Etiology: bacterial and viral infection, trauma, allergy, drug or plant irritation, garbage, dust, etc.

       Symptoms: excrement, blinking, tears, blinking film exposure. Serious can also cause conjunctival swelling. There are symptoms of cat viral rhinotracheitis, cat cold pathogen infection and other diseases.

       Tips£º

       If there is more than one cat in the house, the small towel used by the sick cat should be separated from that of other cats and disinfected frequently.

       Some friends think that keratitis and conjunctivitis are the same thing, but they are not. The conjunctiva is the surface layer of the white part of the eye, and the cornea is transparent in the front of the eyeball. Because the cornea is in direct contact with the outside world, there are more chances of infection.

       Cause: eyelashes, trauma, entropion or conjunctivitis can lead to corneal inflammation.

       Symptoms: sore eyes, tears, cloudy and white cornea (but not the same as cataracts).

       Medical manual: the general practice is to use a warm towel on the cat’s eyelids, which can promote blood circulation, and then use some antibiotic ointment prescribed by a pet doctor for treatment.

       Tips£º

       Vitamin A deficiency and keratomalacia often occur in cats.

       From the name, we know that it must be related to tears. Some cats always have wet eyes, as if there are tears flowing out. Teardrop is a phenomenon in which there is a lot of tears, such as crying or inflammation of the eyes; and epiphora is an abnormal phenomenon of tears.

       Cause: excessive secretion of tears or obstruction of lacrimal duct.

       Symptoms: the hair under the cat’s eyes is tan.

       Medical manual: don’t use eye ointment or eye drops casually for your cat. Always ask a professional doctor for eyedrops.

       Tips£º

       This eye disease may be related to eye allergies or respiratory tract infections, and often occurs in cats with short genetic faces, such as Persia and heterosexual. Therefore, owners of these cats should carefully check their eyes during their first medical examination.

       1¡¢ Brief introduction of cat retinal atrophy

       The disease is due to retinal degeneration. As time goes on, the cat will be completely blind. At present, there is no cure, but if the cat lives indoors, and if the furniture does not move and change its position frequently, even the blind cat can adapt well and live a long life. PRA has a variety of different diseases, one of which is dominant inheritance. The other is recessive inheritance, and the other is that no one knows whether it can be inherited so far.

       The cat’s eyes are bright and sharp, giving people a sense of pride and dignity

       Owners may find changes in their personality, such as unwillingness to go up and down stairs or walk in dark corridors, which are characteristic of night blindness, and have no problem with vision during the day. With the development of the disease, the owner can see the pupil dilation and reflected light from the back of the eyes. Because the progress of blindness is rather slow, the owner may not notice any sign unless the cat is in unfamiliar conditions and until the loss of vision becomes more pronounced.

       Veterinarian ophthalmologist, the cat to carry out a detailed examination of fundus lesions, experienced doctors will understand the stage of retinal degeneration and precursors, and understand the pupil nerve reflex and visual acuity, and then use the ophthalmic slit lamp to check whether there are other eye complications.

       Electroretinogram is the best tool for diagnosis and early diagnosis of retinal dysfunction. In conclusion, veterinary ophthalmologists will conduct detailed examination of fundus lesions, understand the stage of retinal degeneration, and understand the pupillary nerve reflex and visual acuity. Electroretinogram is the best tool for early diagnosis of retinal degeneration.

       3¡¢ Prevention and treatment of cat retinal atrophy

       As the disease is a genetic defect, so far there is no effective drug treatment, and there is no need for blind medication or medication. At present, there are studies on other therapies abroad, such as gene therapy, neuroprotective drugs and antioxidant nutrition tablets. Appropriate supplement of antioxidant nutrition is an auxiliary way to slow down the degradation without side effects, just as people eat Shancun or Yinbao Shancun.

       Cats with PRA disease gene will continue to transmit the pathogenic gene to their offspring, but it will not develop in every generation. It may occur several generations before the onset of the disease. Therefore, it is very difficult to detect the disease as soon as possible to avoid mating spread, especially in cats with late-onset hereditary retinal degeneration, because when the cat is nearly middle-aged, it may have been mated many times, unless the cat is young Before mating, DNA test should be carried out to find out whether there is a mutation gene of PRA before mating.

       At home, it is necessary to pay attention to the main points of home care for the cat with retinal atrophy, so as to help the cat with retinal atrophy pass the adjustment period of blindness and avoid accidents. In the late stage of retinal atrophy retinopathy, the pupil will become larger and divergent, and there is no contraction reflex to light. The pupil can not regulate the amount of light entering the eye normally. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid going out when the sunlight is strong, otherwise ultraviolet light will accelerate the oxidative damage and degeneration of retina and lens.

       Some symptoms of systemic diseases can be found in the eyes

       The symptoms of the disease in the early stage will be reflected in a certain part, and for the cat’s eyes, it is also connected with the blood circulation and metabolism of the whole body. Some systemic diseases will show signs from the eyes, or some diseases will spread from the eyes to the whole body. The typical diseases are infectious diseases and immune-mediated diseases.

       1¡¢ Infectious diseases

       Take conjunctivitis as an example. After the cat has conjunctivitis, the appearance of the affected eyes is swollen, the conjunctiva is flushed, the eyes are shy and tears, the eyelids are closed, and there are purulent secretions. Young cats are often stuck to their eyes by purulent secretions and are unable to open their eyes. Acute attack of catarrhal conjunctivitis, secretion is thin or mucinous; chronic catarrhal conjunctivitis, secretion is few, eye pain is not obvious; purulent conjunctivitis, its secretion is mucinous purulent, eyelid is often adhered by blood pus.

       Cat optic neuritis is also a common disease, clinical manifestations are as follows:

       ¢Ù Vision decline: most of the sudden decline in vision, or even a few days after the onset of light or no light.

       ¢Ú Traction like pain in the back of the eyeball and tenderness in the deep part of the orbit.

       Therefore, after finding a cat bitten by a tick, we should:

       ¢Ù Do not tear and pull the ticks that stay on the skin, so as to prevent the secondary damage of skin caused by avulsion or broken mouth organ. Use chloroform, * *, kerosene, turpentine or dry smoke on the head of ticks, and wait for the ticks to fall naturally from the skin.

       ¢Ú The wound should be disinfected. If the mouthpiece is broken into the skin, it should be taken out surgically.

       ¢Ü Antihistamines and corticosteroids can be given when systemic poisoning symptoms occur. In case of tick biting fever and tick paralysis, corresponding symptomatic treatment and timely rescue should be carried out in addition to supportive treatment.

       Ocular lesions with this fungal disease include blepharitis, uveitis, choroiditis, granulomatous retinal detachment and optic neuritis.

       The symptoms of blepharitis in cats are

       ¢Ù Tear: because trigeminal nerve is stimulated, make the secretion of tear reflex hyperactivity, or eyelid hypertrophy causes tear point compression. (2) flushing and hypertrophy around palpebral fissure.

       ¢Û Blepharospasm.

       ¢Ü Dehairing around palpebral fissure, sometimes not seen in acute phase.

       ¢Ý Chip fall.

       ¢Þ Scab formation.

       When fungal or parasitic infection is suspected, the treatment should be based on dermatomycosis, cat scabies and Demodex.

       Let’s talk about uveitis. Uveitis is one of the most common eye diseases in cats. It usually causes chronic pain in the eyes and even blindness. Cat uvea is not only an eye disease, it is associated with many systemic diseases. Uveitis in cats can show many clinical symptoms. For example: photophobia, epiphora, redness of white eye, abnormal pupil size and contour, abnormal iris color, intraocular hemorrhage, etc. For a specific eye, sometimes there will be more than one of the above symptoms.

       The worst thing about uveitis is secondary glaucoma, which can quickly lead to blindness in animals. The main principles of treatment are local and systemic anti-inflammatory drugs (dianbispar, prednisone), drugs to prevent secondary glaucoma (timolol), and drugs to relieve lens spasm (atropine).

       Toxoplasma is parasitized on the intestinal mucosa of cats, and cats are the ultimate hosts of Toxoplasma gondii. Domestic cats may be infected with Toxoplasma gondii in their lifetime by eating dead mice, moles, squirrels or other infected small animals. Cats that live entirely indoors and have never been exposed to mice may never be infected.

       2¡¢ Immune mediated diseases

       This kind of disease mainly includes skin uveitis syndrome in cats. This disease usually causes posterior uveitis in both eyes, and is usually accompanied by serous retinal detachment. This disease can only occur in pigmented eyes, so when an animal has a blue eye and a brown eye, the disease may appear monocular, occurring in the pigmented brown eyes. At the same time, the skin of the whole body is accompanied with hair color, and the nose, feet, mouth and eyelids are depigmented.

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