Application of insulin glargine in cat diabetes mellitus

       Insulin glargine is an insulin analogue synthesized by E.coli using DNA recombination technology. The insulin molecule was modified by replacing asparagine with glycine at site 21 and adding two arginine to the end of the insulin B chain. Glycine arginine replacement is named after glycine. This modification changed the isoelectric point of insulin and made insulin soluble at pH4. When the pH of subcutaneous tissue was 7.4, the acidic solution was neutralized and insulin formed particles and then released stably. Insulin glargine slowly released into the systemic circulation, producing a sustained effect. The formation of microparticles depends on the interaction between acidic insulin (pH = 4) and relatively neutral subcutaneous tissue (pH = 7); therefore, insulin glargine should not be mixed with other insulin or diluted with liquid before use.

       Insulin glargine is designed to be used once a day, regardless of its hypoglycemic effect, to enter the market with no peak insulin. However, according to the blood glucose and insulin glargine concentration curves made by diabetic cats and healthy cats, there was a low blood glucose level and a peak insulin level. In cats, clinical experience has shown that insulin glargine is effective for a long time. Compared with other insulin, stable cats usually do not have significant hyperglycemia at the next insulin injection.

       At present, most of insulin glargine in China is 3ml 300iu. For example, the lowest adjustment range of insulin glargine is 1iu, which makes the adjustment of dosage more difficult. Although there are some problems in this respect, according to the use of insulin glargine on the control of blood glucose in diabetes is better than other insulin. The following table is the dosage adjustment table of insulin glargine.

       Parameters of dose adjustment

       Dose change

       Stage 1: initial dose and dose in the first 3 days

       25 IU / kg q12h

       The cat had a history of ketoacidosis, and the blood glucose concentration was more than 17 mmol / L after 24-48 hours

       Increase 0.5 IU

       If the blood glucose concentration is less than 2.8 mmol / L

       According to the dose of insulin (< 3 IU / cat or > 3 IU / cat), reduce the dose by 0.25 ~ 0.5 IU

       Phase 2: increasing dose

       If the lowest blood glucose level > 17mmol / L

       5 IU every 3 days

       If the lowest blood glucose level is 11-17 mmol / L

       According to the level of cat insulin dosage, it increases by 0.25 ~ 0.5 IU every 3 days

       If the lowest level of blood glucose < 11mmol / L, but the peak value > 11mmol / L

       According to the level of cat insulin dosage, it increases by 0.25-0.5 IU every 5-7 days

       If the blood glucose concentration is less than 2.8 mmol / L

       According to the level of cat insulin dose, reduce 0.25 ~ 0.5 IU

       6 mmol / L at the second insulin injection

       Determine which method is most suitable for each individual:

       1. Feed the cat and reduce the dose by 0.25 ~ 0.5 IU according to the insulin dosage

       2. The cats were fed for 1-2 hours, and the normal dose was given when the blood glucose concentration increased to > 5.6 mmol / L. If the blood glucose concentration does not increase within 1-2 hours, reduce the dose by 0.25 IU or 0.5 IU

       3. Split dose: when the cat was fed, the majority of each dose was given immediately, and the remaining dose was given 1-2 hours after the blood glucose concentration rose to > 5.6 mmol / L

       Stage 3: maintenance dose, to maintain blood glucose concentration between 2.8 and 11 mmol / L throughout the day

       If the blood glucose concentration is less than 2.8 mmol / L

       According to the level of cat insulin dosage, it can reduce 0.25 ~ 0.5 IU

       If the lowest or peak blood glucose level is more than 11 mmol / L

       According to the level of cat insulin dosage and hyperglycemia, it will increase by 0.25 ~ 0.5 IU

       Stage 4: dose reduction. According to the dose, the dosage was gradually reduced by 0.25 ~ 0.5 IU

       When the cat regularly (for at least one week a day) the lowest blood glucose concentration is within the range of healthy cat blood glucose, all below 5.6 mmol / L

       According to the level of cat insulin dose, reduce 0.25 ~ 0.5 IU

       In a few days, the lowest blood glucose level was 2.2 ~ < 2.8 mmol / L at least three times

       According to the level of cat insulin dose, reduce 0.25 ~ 0.5 IU

       If the peak blood glucose > 11mmol / L

       Immediately increase insulin to the final effective dose

       Stage 5: mitigation. No insulin was used to maintain normal blood glucose concentration for at least 14 days.

       Author: Wang Jiangwei, doctor of veterinary medicine, China Agricultural University; Cao Yan, master of veterinary medicine, China Agricultural University

Fat cats are not happy

       Many owners think that the cat is fat and cute, so they feed the cat without restraint. But do you know that when you satisfy your selfish desires, the cat has to bear the terrible consequences alone. Liver disease, diabetes, arthritis, respiratory disease, urethral disease caused by obesity will make the cat’s life heavier.

       At present, 45% of domestic cats in the world are overweight, and 20% of them have passed the “obesity” standard. There are countless cats died every year because of obesity and concurrent diseases. Many owners began to take them on the road to lose weight when they realized that obesity would bring serious harm to cats. However, like humans, cat weight loss is a long and painful process. Some cats can’t even walk, let alone lose weight, because of serious joint disease. And the host’s intolerance often directly leads to weight loss failure.

       If you don’t want your cat to be obese, you should pay attention to scientific feeding. Once your cat is overweight, you should pay special attention to their daily life. When the cat urine frequency increases or fails to urinate, it may be suffering from urinary system diseases. If not treated in time, the cat will have a series of serious diseases such as uremia. When the cat has wheezing sound, it indicates that their respiratory system is abnormal, and the owner should be alert. In order to ensure the health of overweight cats, it is better for the owners to take them for physical examination regularly. If the cats are found sick, they should be treated as soon as possible, and the weight loss plan should be agreed with the pet doctor.

       Because the rich disease caused by obesity needs to be treated for a long time, so the cost of the host will not be small. If the insurance company has the medical insurance of this kind of pet disease, the owner can consider to put in an insurance.